Islamic music listening, spiritual well-being and burnout of employees in Islamic university

Mendengar musik Islam, kesejahteraan rohani dan kelelahan dalam kalangan pekerja di universiti Islam


  • Nurasikin Mohamad Shariff Department of Special Care Nursing, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia.
  • Nor Atiqah Azhar Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia
  • Siti Nurbayani Abu Bakar Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia
  • Azmir Ahmad Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia
  • Mohd Arifin Kaderi Department of Basic Health Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Science, cum Head, Centre for Arts and Cultural Sustainable Department (CITRA), IIUM, Malaysia.
  • Sanisah Saidi Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia



Islamic Music, Burnout, Religiosity, Spiritual Well-Being


In Malaysia, working in a university with Islamic vibes that boost spiritual well-being and reduce burnout needs to be supported with empirical evidence. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between listening to Islamic music, spiritual well-being, and burnout among employees of public universities. A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted among 140 employees in a public university during the Covid-19 movement control order in Malaysia (April to May 2021). The set of questionnaires includes socio-demographic data, the types and frequency of music listened by the employees, Modified Maslach Inventory Burnout (MBI), the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and spiritual well-being (SWB). The data was analysed using SPSS version 26.0, and hypotheses were tested using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis and Spearman correlation. The majority of employees listened to music every day, and 51.4% of study participants listened to Islamic music or audio. The study participants have a high level of religiosity (DUREL Mean = 24.02, SD=±2.352), high spiritual well-being (SWB) (Mean= 109.84, SD=±9.014). For the burnout category, there was a low level of depersonalization (Mean= 8.54, SD=±5.728), moderate emotional exhaustion (Mean=20.51, SD=±9.866), and high personal accomplishment (Mean=31.87, SD=±7.956) among employees. SWB correlates positively with personal accomplishment and negatively with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation (p<.05). The present study highlights that listening to Islamic music has the potential to support the mental well-being and productivity of employees.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Nurasikin Mohamad Shariff, Department of Special Care Nursing, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia.

Dr. Nurasikin Mohamad Shariff was trained to become specialised in mental health nursing to fill the Department of Special Care Nursing position. She is currently an Assistant Professor at the Kulliyyah of Nursing, IIUM. She has published a few articles in the mental health field, particularly on spirituality, religiosity and mental health. Her PhD research project entitled ‘Spiritual recovery in people diagnosed with bipolar disorder in Malaysia’ in which she explored the spiritual resources in that studied population with the application of Bourdieu’s symbolic capital. She further expands the work of Bourdieu’s symbolic capital into spiritual capital. She is currently very much inspired by Bourdieu’s trinity concept of habitus, capital and field. She is keen to expand her research interest into the social phenomenon of any disorder related to well-being, such as spiritual distress and smoking issues.


Abdul Razak, M. A., Abdul Razak, A. L., & Zaroum, A. M. A. (2019). Mental health and psychotherapy: A comparison between Western and Islamic scripturally based psychologies. Al-Burhan, 3(2), 15–33. Retrieved from

Ahmad, A., & Omar, Z. (2016). Workplace spirituality among Malaysian community service employees in the public sector. Asian Social Science, 12(9), 193–201.

Al-Kumaim, N. H., Alhazmi, A. K., Mohammed, F., Gazem, N. A., Shabbir, M. S., & Fazea, Y. (2021). Exploring the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on university students’ learning life: An integrated conceptual motivational model for sustainable and healthy online learning. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(5), 1–21.

Alves, P. C., Oliveira, A. D. F., & Paro, H. B. M. D. S. (2019). Quality of life and burnout among faculty members: How much does the field of knowledge matter? PLoS ONE, 14(3), e0214217.

Bouarif, N. (2015). Predicting organizational commitment: The role of religiosity and ethical ideology. European Scientific Journal, 11(17), 83-307. Retrieved from

Ellison, C. W., & Smith, J. (1991). Toward an integrative measure of health and well-being. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 19(1), 35-48.

Garcia-Rivera, B. R., Mendoza-Martínez, I. A., García-Alcaraz, J. L., Olguín-Tiznado, J. E., Camargo Wilson, C., Araníbar, M. F., & García-Alcaraz, P. (2022). Influence of resilience on burnout syndrome of faculty professors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(2), 1-19.

Garg, N. (2017). Workplace spirituality and employee well-being: An empirical exploration, 23(2), 129-147.

Hanapiyah, Z. M., Daud, S., & Abdullah, W. M. T. W. (2019). Maintaining integrity among employees through empowerment religiosity and spirituality. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 19(2), 38-46. Retrieved from

Hawks, S. R., Hull, M., Thalman, R.L., & Richins, P.M. (1995). Review of Spiritual health: definition, role, and intervention strategies in health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9(5), 371-378.

Héliot, Y., Gleibs, I. H., Coyle, A., Rousseau, D. M., & Rojon, C. (2019). Religious identity in the workplace: A systematic review, research agenda, and practical implications. Human Resource Management, 59(2), 153-173.

Ho, R. T., Sing, C. Y., Fong, T. C., Au‐Yeung, F. S., Law, K. Y., Lee, L. F., & Ng, S. M. (2016). Underlying spirituality and mental health: The role of burnout. Journal of Occupational Health, 58(1), 66-71.

Imam, S. S., Abdul Karim, N. H., Jusoh, N. R., & Mamad, N. E. (2009). Malay version of spiritual well-being scale: Is Malay spiritual well-being scale a psychometrically sound instrument? The Journal of Behavioral Science, 4(1), 59-69. Retrieved from

Kim, H. S., & Yeom, H. (2018). The association between spiritual well-being and burnout in intensive care unit nurses: A descriptive study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 46(June 2018), 92-97.

Legg, J. T (2019, June 5). Why the WHO's change in definition of burnout is so important. Retrieved from

Mohamad, M. S., & Badawy, S. M. (2015). Perfectionism and Job Burnout: Does Religious Coping Moderate the Relationship? International Journal of Business and Social Research, 5(12), 1-14.

Moore, J. E. (2017). Scholar works spiritual well-being, intelligence, and job satisfaction among U.S. federal employees. Retrieved from

Moss, H. (2019). Music therapy, spirituality and transcendence. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 28(3), 212-223. Retrieved from:

Nurasikin, M. S., Aini, A., Syarinaz, A. A., & Ng, C. G. (2010). Validity and reliability of the Malay version of Duke University Religion Index (DUREL-M) among a group of nursing student. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry, 19(2). 68-72 Retrieved from:

Perkins, R., Mason-Bertrand, A., Fancourt, D., Baxter, L., & Williamon, A. (2020). How participatory music engagement supports mental well-being: a meta-ethnography. Qualitative health research, 30(12), 1924-1940.

Piatkowska, J. M., Chair, E. B., Coleman, D., Cotrell, V., Kindermann, T., & Rosenzweig, J. (2014). The relationship between mindfulness and burnout among master of social work students. Portland State University.

Rathee, R., & Rajain, P. (2020). Workplace spirituality: A comparative study of various models. Jindal Journal of Business Research, 9(1), 27-40.

Rose, J. M. (2019). Abstract Prayer as a predictor for burnout among psychiatric nursing assistants. Walden University Scholar Works Walden. Retrieved from

Shaharuddin, S. A., Abd Majid, M., Abdullah, M. Y. M., Usman, A. H., & Amran, S. N. A. (2020). Analisis literatur sistematik: Impak elemen spiritual terhadap kejayaan usahawan Muslim. al-Irsyad: Journal of Islamic and Contemporary Issues, 5(2), 434-443.

Tarmizi, L. (2019). Bayan Linnas siri ke-197: Islam and muzik. Retrieved from

Ulfiah, U. (2018). Effectiveness of dzikir therapy in improving religious commitment. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 261(Icie), 1–7.

Wigert, B., & Agrawal, S. (2018) Employee burnout, part 1: The 5 main causes. Retrieved from

Woodhead, E. L., Northrop, L., & Edelstein, B. (2016). Stress, social support, and burnout among long-term care nursing staff. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 35(1), 84–105.

Wyatt, N. (2017). A quantitative study of religiosity and job satisfaction in law enforcement (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University). Retrieved from

Zahid, A. (2017). Employee performance improvement through religious values and quality of communications as well as personal integrity (Case Study in PoLSUSKA Daop 5 Purwokerto). International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics, 2(2), 301-313.

Zare, E., & Beheshtifar, M. (2013). Effect of spirituality in workplace on job performance. J Contemp Res Bus, 5(2), 248-254. Retrieved from



How to Cite

Mohamad Shariff, N., Azhar, N. A., Abu Bakar, S. N., Ahmad, A., Kaderi, M. A., & Saidi, S. (2022). Islamic music listening, spiritual well-being and burnout of employees in Islamic university: Mendengar musik Islam, kesejahteraan rohani dan kelelahan dalam kalangan pekerja di universiti Islam. Al-Irsyad: Journal of Islamic and Contemporary Issues, 7(2), 915-923.