The role of media television to emerge patriotism during conflict: evidence from Palestine TV
Peranan televisyen sebagai media untuk menjanakan patriotisme semasa konflik: bukti dari TV Palestin
Keywords:News, Media TV, Patriotism, Palestine, Aggression
Drawing upon observations regarding the crisis in Palestine, media is sometimes the only source of information consumed by society. This raises the critical question of how the Palestinian state media generates awareness of societal issues, such as the patriotism of citizens as a sense of devotion to one’s country. This study examines whether the state media TV in Palestine contributes to existing patriotism because such a contribution should be explored separately. For this purpose, we first analyse the strategies employed by Palestine TV in delivering news during the period 2020–2021. Second, we examine whether the information framed in the state media effectively promotes Palestinian patriotism to the target audience. To discuss this issue, we use agenda-setting theories through the first level, wherein we describe the power of media to persuade viewers, influence public opinion and construct a hierarchy of being patriotic. The results revealed that the news portrayed on Palestine TV enhanced Palestinian patriotism. This finding implies that media can augment citizens’ views on patriotism. This study provides insights into future investigations on the role of media in the time of crisis particularly related to the Israeli occupation in Palestine and the impacts of its occupation on Palestinians.
Al-Masry, R. Y. (2016). The role of official media in strengthening national identity of Palestinian "Palestine TV - a case study". (Master Thesis, An-Najah National University). Retrieved from https://scholar.najah.edu/sites/default/files/Rafiq%20Masri.pdf.
Al-Najjar, A. (2011). Contesting patriotism and global journalism ethics in Arab journalism. Journalism Studies, 12(6), 747-756. http://doi.org/10.1080/1461670x.2011.614811.
Ariely, G. (2016). Why does patriotism prevail? Contextual explanations of patriotism across countries. Identities, 24(3), 351-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2016.1149069.
Asah-Asante, K., & Brako, I. (2014). Media crusade against corruption in Ghana’s fourth republic (2004-2012). International Journal of arts and sciences, 7(2), 77-86. 1–10. Retrieved from https://academicexcellencesociety.com/media_crusade_against_corruption_in_ghanas_fourth_republic.pdf.
Awais, I., Awais, S., & Alhossary, A. Z. (2020). Between the national and the Islamic: representation of Jerusalem in the media coverage of HAMAS-affiliated Aqsa TV. Search-Journal of the southeast Asia research centre for communications and humanities. Retrieved from https://fslmjournals.taylors.edu.my/between-the-national-and-the-islamic-representation-of-jerusalem-in-the-media-coverage-of-hamas-affiliated-aqsa-tv/.
Baron, M., & Rogers, T. (2020). Patriotism and impartiality. Handbook of patriotism. Switzerland: Springer International.
Bek, M. G. (2004). Research note: Tabloidization of news media: An analysis of television news in Turkey. European Journal of Communication, 19(3), 371-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323104045264.
Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G. (1998). Text analysis: Qualitative and quantitative methods. In Edited by: H. R.Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Boykoff, M. T., & Rajan, S. R. (2007). Signals and noise: Mass media coverage of climate change in the USA and the UK. EMBO Reports, 8(3), 207-211. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.embor.7400924.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. 2013. Successful qualitative research: a practical guide for beginners. London, UK: Sage.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. 2019. Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4), 589-597. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1628806.
Browne, M., Stack, L., & Ziyadah, M. (2015). Streets to screens: conflict, social media and the news. Information, Communication & Society, 18(11), 1339-1347. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1071862.
Campbell, R., Martin, C., & Fabos, B. (2014). Media & culture: Mass communication in a digital age. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Carroll, C. E. (2011). Corporate reputation and the news media. New York, NY: Routledge.
Choe, Y., Kim, H., & Cho, I. (2020). Role of patriotism in explaining event attendance intention and media consumption intention: The case of Rio 2016. Current issues in tourism, 23(5), 523-529. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2019.1579173.
Cook-Huffman, C. (2009). The role of identity in conflict. In D. Sandole, S. Byrne, I. Sandole-Staroste, & J. Senehi (eds.), Handbook in conflict analysis and resolution. New York, NY: Routledge.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Dotson, D. M., Jacobson, S. K., Kaid, L. L., & Carlton, J. S. (2012). Media coverage of climate change in Chile: A content analysis of conservative and liberal newspapers. Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture, 6(1), 64-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2011.642078.
Ferrari, C. (2019). Spectacle, trauma, patriotism: Media and media studies in the aftermath of 9/11. In 9/11 and the Academy (pp. 155-183). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16419-5_6.
Fortner, R. S. & Fackler, P. M. (2014). The Handbook of media and mass communication theory. Vol. 1. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Griffin, E., Ledbetter, A., & Sparks, G. (2019). A first look at communication theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Introduction to applied thematic analysis. Applied thematic analysis, 3(20), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483384436.
Hass, R. (2010). The role of media in conflict and their influence on securitisation. The International Spectator, 44(4), 77-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03932720903351187.
Hepp, A., Roitsch, C., & Berg, M. (2016). Investigating communication networks contextually: qualitative network analysis as cross-media research. MedieKultur: Journal of media and communication research, 32(60), 20-p. https://doi.org/10.7146/mediekultur.v32i60.21614.
Kasmani, M. F. (2014). Representation of international views on the 2009 Iranian election: a study of BBC World News and Al Jazeera English. JSEARCCH, 6(1), 1-23. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Faizal-Kasmani-2/publication/278671659_Representation_of_International_Views_on_the_2009_Iranian_Election_A_Study_of_BBC_World_News_and_Al_Jazeera_English/links/5a3880130f7e9b7c486f8b23/Representation-of-International-Views-on-the-2009-Iranian-Election-A-Study-of-BBC-World-News-and-Al-Jazeera-English.pdf.
Klapper, J. T. (1960). The effects of mass communication. New York, NY: Free Press.
Kosterman, R., & Feshbach, S. (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Political Psychology, 10, 257-27. https://doi.org/10.2307/3791647.
Mahat-Shamir, M., Neimeyer, R. A., & Pitcho-Prelorentzos, S. (2019). Designing in-depth semi structured interviews for revealing meaning reconstruction after loss. Death Studies. 1-8. http://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2019.1617388.
McCallum, D. B., Hammond, S. L., & Covello, V. T. (1991). Communicating about environmental risks: how the public uses and perceives information sources. Health Education Quarterly, 18(3), 349-361. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F109019819101800307.
McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public opinion quarterly, 36(2), 176-187. https://doi.org/10.1086/267990.
Montgomery, M., & Feng, D. (2016). ‘Coming up next’: the discourse of television news headlines. Discourse & Communication, 10(5), 500-520. https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481316659397.
Mrogers, E., & Wdearing, J. (1988). Agenda-setting research: where has it been, where is it going? Annals of the International Communication Association, 11(1), 555-594. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1988.11678708.
Mueller, J. E. (1973). War, presidents, and public opinion. New York, NY: Wiley.
Nathanson, S. (1993). Patriotism, morality, and peace. Boston: Rowman & Littlefield.
Nugent, J. K. (1994). The development of children’s relationships with their country. Children’s Environments, 11, 281-291. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41514949.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Leech, N. L. (2007). Sampling designs in qualitative research: making the sampling process more public. Qualitative Report, 12(2), 238-254. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2007.1636.
Palestine TV, “Nabil Alkurad,” one of the families who did not agree to leave Sheikh Jarrah, https://www.facebook.com/PalestineTV/videos/3969733156469131/, access on March 10, 2022.
Palestine TV, The beauty of Al-Aqsa Mosque architecture, Yerusalem, https://www.facebook.com/PalestineTV/videos/1151096138666794/, access on March 10, 2022.
Palestinian News & Info Agency, Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation (PBC), Palestine, https://info.wafa.ps/ar_page.aspx?id=5134 access on May 20, 2022.
Pfefferbaum, B., Jeon-Slaughter, H., Jacobs, A. K., & Houston, J. B. (2013). Children of national guard troops: a pilot study of deployment, patriotism, and media coverage. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 15(2), 129-137. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.684.1107&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=49.
Punch, K. F. (2014). Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Russill, C. (2008). Through a public darkly: reconstructing pragmatist perspectives in communication theory. Communication Theory, 18(4), 478-504. https://doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2008.00331.x.
Schatz, R. T., Staub, E., & Lavine, H. (1999). On the varieties of national attachment: blind versus constructive patriotism. Political Psychology, 20, 51-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00140.
Schramm, W. (1964). Mass media and national development: The role of information in the developing countries (Vol. 65). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Shoemaker, P. J., & Stephen D. R. (1996). Mediating the message. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Skrynnikova, I., Permyakova, T., & Pozdeeva, E. (2021). Good intentions exploited badly: contested metaphors of Russian patriotism. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2021.1963307.
Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Tartakovsky, E. (2011). National identity of high-school adolescents in an ear of socio-economic change: Russia and Ukraine in the Post-Perestroika period. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 231-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9509-6.
Tsai, W. H. S. (2010). Patriotic advertising and the creation of the citizen-consumer. Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 2(3), 076-084. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMCS.9000052.
Ward, S. J., & Wasserman, H. (2010). Media ethics beyond borders: A global perspective. Routledge.
White, D. M. (1950). The “gate keeper”: a case study in the selection of news. Journalism Quarterly, 27(4), 383-390. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F107769905002700403.
Yessenbekova, U. M. (2018). Television in the development of information society culture in Kazakhstan. Media Watch, 9(3), 411-417. https://doi.org/10.15655/mw/2018/v9i3/49498.
Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (2012). Applications of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Zucker, G. H. (1978). The variable nature of news media influence. Annals of the International Communication Association, 2(1), 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1978.11923728.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 al-Irsyad: Journal of Islamic and Contemporary Issues
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere,
- That its publication has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with al-Irsyad: Journal of Islamic and Contemporary Issues agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
Licensing for Data Publication
al-Irsyad: Journal of Islamic and Contemporary Issues use a variety of waivers and licenses that are specifically designed for and appropriate for the treatment of data:
- Open Data Commons Attribution License, http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/(default)
- Creative Commons CC-Zero Waiver, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
- Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License, http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/1-0/
Other data publishing licenses may be allowed as exceptions (subject to approval by the editor on a case-by-case basis) and should be justified with a written statement from the author, which will be published with the article.
Open Data and Software Publishing and Sharing
The journal strives to maximize the replicability of the research published in it. Authors are thus required to share all data, code, or protocols underlying the research reported in their articles. Exceptions are permitted but have to be justified in a written public statement accompanying the article.
Datasets and software should be deposited and permanently archived in appropriate, trusted, general, or domain-specific repositories (please consult http://service.re3data.org and/or software repositories such as GitHub, GitLab, Bioinformatics.org, or equivalent). The associated persistent identifiers (e.g. DOI, or others) of the dataset(s) must be included in the data or software resources section of the article. Reference(s) to datasets and software should also be included in the reference list of the article with DOIs (where available). Where no domain-specific data repository exists, authors should deposit their datasets in a general repository such as ZENODO, Dryad, Dataverse, or others.
Small data may also be published as data files or packages supplementary to a research article, however, the authors should prefer in all cases a deposition in data repositories.