Analisis Naratif Fasa Kehidupan Miskawayh (932-1030 M)

Narrative Analysis on the Life Phases of Miskawayh (932-1030 M)

  • Kamal Azmi Abd. Rahman Faculty of Islamic Civilization Studies, Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (KUIS), Malaysia.
  • Indriaty Ismail Jabatan Usuluddin dan Falsafah, Fakulti Pengajian Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Malaysia
Keywords: Miskawayh, Falsafah Akhlak, Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq, Naratif, Biografi

Abstract

Miskawayh is an important figure in the development of Islamic ethical philosophy. The synthesis between Greek philosophy and Islamic knowledge which he developed in the Middle Ages is considered a significant innovation in the formation of Islamic ethical philosophy. Miskawayh’s scholarship can be seen in his career commitment and in academic circles during his stay in his hometown Rayy and Baghdad. Though Miskawayh’s biography has been widely presented, his biographical narrative in this study is needed to ascertain his life changes based on different phases of his life. Therefore, this qualitative study will discuss the biography of Miskawayh. A biographical narrative analysis of Miskawayh found four major phases in his life. The first phase (up until the age of about 20) was when he obtained basic Islamic knowledge and studied chemistry. The second phase was between 956 AD and 963 AD in Baghdad. During that period of time, he was involved in the discussion of philosophy and dealing with moral issues. The third phase was in 963 AD in Rayy, Iran, where he dedicated his time studying various themes of writing and teaching. The fourth phase was between 976 AD and 1030 AD, at the age of 44 until his death at the age of 96 in Iṣfahān, Iran. During this phase, he was active in philosophical writings and refining ethics. Due to the breadth of Miskawayh’s knowledge and experience, his writings on ethics have been influential, especially his magnum opus entitled Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq that has received a substantial amount of attention from the Islamic and Western scholars to this day. This work written to the end of Miskawayh’s life proved his scholarly interest in philosophy, self-development, and career.

ABSTRAK 

Miskawayh merupakan seorang tokoh penting dalam perkembangan ilmu falsafah akhlak. Sintesis falsafah Yunani dengan ilmu Islam yang telah dilakukan oleh beliau pada abad pertengahan dianggap sebagai suatu inovasi yang signifikan dalam pembentukan ilmu akhlak Islam. Kesarjanaan Miskawayh boleh dilihat melalui komitmennya terhadap kerjaya dan dunia akademik sepanjang beliau berada di Rayy, Iran kota kelahirannya dan juga ketika berada di Baghdad. Walaupun biografi Miskawayh telah banyak dibentangkan, naratif biografi beliau di dalam kajian ini diperlukan bagi mengenal pasti perubahan hidup Miskawayh berdasarkan kepada fasa kehidupannya yang berbeza. Oleh itu, kajian berbentuk kualitatif ini akan membahaskan tentang biografi Miskawayh. Analisis naratif terhadap biografi tersebut mendapati bahawa Miskawayh telah melalui empat fasa penting dalam kehidupannya. Fasa pertama (sehingga usiannya kira-kira 20 tahun) ialah ketika beliau mendapatkan ilmu asas Islam dan mempelajari tentang ilmu kimia. Fasa kedua ialah antara 956 sehingga 963 Masihi di Baghdad. Ketika ini beliau terlibat dengan perbincangan falsafah dan berhadapan dengan masalah akhlak. Fasa ketiga pula ialah pada tahun 963 Masihi di Rayy, Iran di mana beliau telah mendedikasikan masanya untuk menelaah pelbagai tema penulisan dan mengajar. Fasa yang keempat ialah pada 976 Masihi iaitu ketika usianya mencecah 44 tahun sehingga beliau meninggal dunia pada 1030 Masihi pada usia 96 tahun di Iṣfahān, Iran. Pada fasa ini, beliau aktif dalam penulisan falsafah dan melakukan mujahadah dalam akhlak. Oleh kerana keluasan ilmu dan pengalaman yang telah dilalui oleh Miskawayh dalam empat fasa ini, penulisan beliau tentang akhlak terutamanya di dalam magnum opus yang bertajuk Tahdhīb al-Akhlāq menjadi sebuah karya yang berpengaruh dan mendapat perhatian pengkaji Islam dan Barat sehingga kini. Karya yang telah ditulis di penghujung hayat Miskawayh ini telah membuktikan kesarjanaan beliau dalam ilmu falsafah, hal pembangunan kendiri serta kerjaya.

 

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Author Biography

Kamal Azmi Abd. Rahman, Faculty of Islamic Civilization Studies, Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (KUIS), Malaysia.

A lecturer at Faculty of  Islamic  Civilization Studies, International Islamic University College of Selangor (KUIS) since 2011. His degree and master is on Usuluddin at International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM). He finished his doctorate study in Usuluddin at  National  University of Malaysia (UKM) on 2019. His major interest is on Islamic thought and philosophy. Apart from that, he also actively involved in research on the understanding of freedom of religion among youth in Malaysia and the development of prototype courseware for primary school students in the subject of Tauhid. He can be contacted at kamalazmi@kuis.edu.my

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Published
2020-06-01
How to Cite
Abd. Rahman, K. A., & Ismail, I. (2020). Analisis Naratif Fasa Kehidupan Miskawayh (932-1030 M). Al-Irsyad: Journal of Islamic and Contemporary Issues, 5(1), 234-243. Retrieved from http://al-irsyad.kuis.edu.my/index.php/alirsyad/article/view/81